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YINJISPACE use media professional’s unique perspective,try to explore the essence of life behind the design works.

© logo 粤ICP备19077098号
France

Le Corbusier(1887~1965)

Charles-Édouard Jeanneret (6 October 1887 – 27 August 1965), known as Le Corbusier, was a Swiss-French architect, designer, painter, urban planner, writer, and one of the pioneers of what is now called modern architecture. He was born in Switzerland and became a French citizen in 1930. His career spanned five decades, and he designed buildings in Europe, Japan, India, and North and South America.

Dedicated to providing better living conditions for the residents of crowded cities, Le Corbusier was influential in urban planning, and was a founding member of the Congrès International d'Architecture Moderne (CIAM). Le Corbusier prepared the master plan for the city of Chandigarh in India, and contributed specific designs for several buildings there.

On 17 July 2016, seventeen projects by Le Corbusier in seven countries were inscribed in the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites as The Architectural Work of Le Corbusier, an Outstanding Contribution to the Modern Movement.

Le Corbusier (Charles-Édouard Jeanneret), 1920, Nature morte (Still Life), oil on canvas, 80.9 cm × 99.7 cm (31.9 in × 39.3 in), Museum of Modern Art, New York
Charles-Édouard Jeanneret was born on 6 October 1887 in La Chaux-de-Fonds, a small city in the French-speaking Neuchâtel canton in north-western Switzerland, in the Jura mountains, just 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) across the border from France. It was an industrial town, devoted to the manufacture of watches. (He adopted the pseudonym of Le Corbusier in 1920.) His father was an artisan who enameled boxes and watches, while his mother gave piano lessons. His elder brother Albert was an amateur violinist.[3] He attended a kindergarten that used Fröbelian methods.

Like his contemporaries Frank Lloyd Wright and Mies van der Rohe, Le Corbusier did not have formal academic training as an architect. He was attracted to the visual arts and at the age of fifteen he entered the municipal art school in La-Chaux-de-Fonds which taught the applied arts connected with watchmaking. Three years later he attended the higher course of decoration, founded by the painter Charles L'Eplattenier, who had studied in Budapest and Paris. Le Corbusier wrote later that L'Eplattenier had made him "a man of the woods" and taught him painting from nature. His father took him frequently into the mountains around the town. He wrote later, "we were constantly on mountaintops; we grew accustomed to a vast horizon." His architecture teacher in the Art School was the architect René Chapallaz, who had a large influence on Le Corbusier's earliest house designs. However, he reported later that it was the art teacher L'Eplattenier who made him choose architecture. "I had a horror of architecture and architects," he wrote. "...I was sixteen, I accepted the verdict and I obeyed. I moved into architecture."

Le Corbusier began teaching himself by going to the library to read about architecture and philosophy, by visiting museums, by sketching buildings, and by constructing them. In 1905, he and two other students, under the supervision of their teacher, René Chapallaz, designed and built his first house, the Villa Fallet, for the engraver Louis Fallet, a friend of his teacher Charles L'Eplattenier. Located on the forested hillside near Chaux-de-fonds. It was a large chalet with a steep roof in the local alpine style and carefully crafted colored geometric patterns on the façade. The success of this house led to his construction of two similar houses, the Villas Jacquemet and Stotzer, in the same area.

In September 1907, he made his first trip outside of Switzerland, going to Italy; then that winter traveling through Budapest to Vienna, where he stayed for four months and met Gustav Klimt and tried, without success, to meet Josef Hoffmann. In Florence, he visited the Florence Charterhouse in Galluzzo, which made a lifelong impression on him. "I would have liked to live in one of what they called their cells," he wrote later. "It was the solution for a unique kind of worker's housing, or rather for a terrestrial paradise." He traveled to Paris, and during fourteen months between 1908 until 1910 he worked as a draftsman in the office of the architect Auguste Perret, the pioneer of the use of reinforced concrete in residential construction and the architect of the Art Deco landmark Théâtre des Champs-Élysées. Two years later, between October 1910 and March 1911, he traveled to Germany and worked four months in the office Peter Behrens, where Ludwig Mies van der Rohe and Walter Gropius were also working and learning.

In 1911, he traveled again for five months; this time he journeyed to the Balkans and visited Serbia, Bulgaria, Turkey, Greece, as well as Pompeii and Rome, filling nearly 80 sketchbooks with renderings of what he saw—including many sketches of the Parthenon, whose forms he would later praise in his work Vers une architecture (1923). He spoke of what he saw during this trip in many of his books, and it was the subject of his last book, Le Voyage d'Orient.

In 1912, he began his most ambitious project; a new house for his parents. also located on the forested hillside near La-Chaux-de-Fonds. The Jeanneret-Perret house was larger than the others, and in a more innovative style; the horizontal planes contrasted dramatically with the steep alpine slopes, and the white walls and lack of decoration were in sharp contrast with the other buildings on the hillside. The interior spaces were organized around the four pillars of the salon in the center, foretelling the open interiors he would create in his later buildings. The project was more expensive to build than he imagined; his parents were forced to move from the house within ten years, and relocate in a more modest house. However, it led to a commission to build an even more imposing villa in the nearby village of Le Locle for a wealthy watch manufacturer. Georges Favre-Jacot. Le Corbusier designed the new house in less than a month. The building was carefully designed to fit its hillside site, and interior plan was spacious and designed around a courtyard for maximum light, significant departure from the traditional house.

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    Design Works

    • Stadium Cultural Centre Arnaud Frich

      The stadium in Firminy, France was built between 1966 and 1968, based on Le Corbusier’s plans. Following the architect’s death in 1965, the project was continued by two of his colleagues: André Wogesncky and Fernand Gardien. The stands have an average capacity of 4180 places, with 500 of these being covered by the canopy, which was originally meant to cover all of the terraces. Built in keeping with original programme, this building was listed as a historical monument in 1984.
    • Pavillon Le Corbusier

      The Le Corbusier Pavilion in Zurich, Switzerland, has reopened to the public after architects Silvio Schmed and Arthur Ruegg restored the Art Museum to its original state. The colorful museum was the last project to be built by a pioneer of modernist architecture, and its glass and steel structure differs from Le Corbusier's preference for concrete. The four-storey glass and steel structure began in 1964 and was completed in 1967, two years after le Corbusier's death, for Swiss gallery owner and interior designer Heidi Weber. Heidi Weber commissioned the building to commemorate the art work of her friend Le Corbusier.
    • National Museum of Western Art

      The National Museum of Western Art, designed by Le Corbusier, is Japan's premier public gallery dedicated to traditional Western Art. The museum is located in Ueno Park in central Tokyo, Taito. The museum is also known by its English acronym NMWA.
    • Maison du Bresil

      As a microcosm of Brazilian life and culture, the Maison du Bresil house is an important example of the design of corbusier's high-density house. Completed in 1959, it is one of 23 international residences at the Sorbonne, located in the center of Paris. As the "Home of Brazil", the building serves as a residence for Brazilian scholars, students, teachers and artists, as well as a center of Brazilian culture. Notably, the building once housed the renowned Brazilian journalist Barroso Do Amaral. The building was commissioned by the Brazilian government in 1952 to house Brazilian graduate students in Paris and to promote relations between France and Brazil.
    • Corbusierhaus

      The Le Corbusierhaus at the western end of Berlin, also known as the "Berlin Union House", is a stunning example of brutalist architecture. Its typical form stands out from the terrain surrounding the nearby Grunewald Forest. In le corbusier in France after successful Unite d 'concept of Habitation, the architect was asked to design something similar in Berlin. The construction phase lasted from 1956 to 1958 and, like many high-rise buildings of this era, the complex was constructed of prefabricated, rough-cast concrete. The 530 apartments are spread across multiple floors and contain between one and five rooms. The building's colorful exterior was odd at the time, and whether or not people's architectural preferences were beastly, there was no denying the cultural importance of this postwar German architectural gem.
    • La Tourette

      The Monastery of La Tourette was le Corbusier's last building in Europe and is considered by many to be his most unique project. It is an independent world built for the silent monk community. In order to adapt to the unique and special lifestyle of monks, the monastery consists of 100 independent units, a public library, a canteen, a roof cloister, a church and classrooms. One of father Marie-Alain Couturier's requirements for architects was to "create a quiet home for a hundred people and a hundred hearts." Le Corbusier's architecture is known for its five key elements, all embodied in the monastery of Tourette in the late Modernist style. In this particular project, the most obvious is the stilts, or load-bearing columns, which line the inner walls and open the facade to long strips of Windows. The classic grass roof creates an architectural footpath associated with the Villa Savoy, although the Abbey's environment is very different from that of the house.
    • Millowners Association Building

      historic textile trading city. The building is a physical manifesto that represents le Corbusier's architectural scheme for modern India. When Le Corbusier began working in warm environments, he developed a set of architectural installations adapted to the climate and cultural context. Drawing inspiration from India's vernacular architecture, he mimics the deep exposure, overhanging ledges, shading screens and grand colonnaded halls. He introduced a visor designed to prevent sunlight from penetrating the facade and combined it with the thickened facade and unfinished concrete in many of his later projects. Surrounded by ample open space,the building was not forced to compete with the existing urban structure, allowing the architects to present an obvious modern aesthetic.
    • La Chapelle de Ronchamp

      The Chapel of Ronchamp, southeast of Paris, is home to one of the most unusual works of Le Corbusier's career -- the Notre Dame Cathedral, or more commonly known as the Palace of Ronchamp. In 1950, Le Corbusier was asked to design a new Catholic church to replace the one destroyed during World War II. The remains of Roncham Church have long been a religious pilgrimage site with deep roots in Catholic traditions, but after World War II, the church wanted a pure space, free of lavish details and ornate religious figures, unlike its predecessor.
    • Unite d’Habitation

      After World War II, the demand for housing reached an unprecedented level. In marseille, France, Unite d Habitation project is a famous architect Le Corbusier (Le Corbusier) of the first large-scale projects. In 1947, when Europe was still feeling the effects of World War II, Le Corbusier was commissioned to design a multi-family housing project for the people of Marseille that had been demolished after the Bombings in France.
    • The Villa Savoye Poissy

      The Villa Savoye, completed in 1931 in Poise, France, by Le Corbusier and Pierre Jeanneret, is one of The most important contributions to modern architecture of The 20th century and an outstanding example of The international style. The villas designed by Le Corbusier in the early 1920s demonstrated what he called the "precision" of architecture, with every feature of the design needing to be validated in design and urban terminology.
    • Immeuble Clarte

      Immeuble Clarte is an apartment building in Geneva, Switzerland. It was designed by Le Corbusier and Pierre Jeanneret in 1928 and was built between 1931 and 1932. It has eight stories, including 45 free planning units of different configurations and sizes. This is le corbusier early one of the important projects, in which he explores the modern architecture in the apartment building principle, then puts forward the United 'Habitation design principles. After surviving demolition in the 1960s, the building was first renovated in the 1970s. It was declared a historic site in 1986 after being threatened with demolition again in the early 1980s.
    • Pavillon Del Esprit Nouveau

      Pavillon del 'esprit Nouveau is a model house built for the 1925 International Exhibition of Modern Decorative and Industrial Art in Paris, France. The building was designed by French architects Le Corbusier and Pierre Jeanneret. In 1977, Glauco Gresleri, Giuliano Gresleri and Jose Oubrerie built an identical replica of the new pavilion for the SAIE Architecture Exhibition in The Fiera district of Bologna, Italy. The architects collaborated with the Le Corbusier Foundation to complete the project.
    • High Court of Punjab and Haryana

      The High Court in India, designed by French architect Le Corbusier, has a beautiful building. It has a rhythmic arcade, created by an umbrella-like roof, that shades the entire building. Considering the special dignity of the judges, Le Corbusier designed a special entrance for them, through a tall portico, which sits on three huge towers painted with bright colors. Very much in keeping with the traditions of Fatehpur-Sikri's Buland Darwaza, this magnificent entrance has an awesome scale and is designed to show the majesty of the law to all who enter.